Currently, the average landing speed of passenger aircraft is about 260 km per hour. When we add to this high speed the weight of the plane, the seriousness of the situation arises. The maximum landing weight of an Airbus A320 aircraft is about 70 tons on average. For another example, the Airbus A380-800 cargo plane can land with a weight of 420 tons, and the passenger plane version can land with a weight of 390 tons.
SPOILER AND SPEED BRAKE
A control surface used to reduce the lift force (lift) acting on aircraft. They are mostly devices placed on the wing and opened on the vertical axis, disrupting the airflow in the corresponding part of the wing.
Air Brake is a type of flight control surface used in aviation to increase drag during landing or increase the angle of approach.
The most important system to stop the aircraft is the brake system located on the wheels of the main landing gear. Modern aircraft also use disc brakes similar to those of the same cars. But cars usually have a disk, while planes have 4 or more disks. Because the energy that can be absorbed through a disk is enough to stop a car, it takes more than a disk to stop a large plane. In cases such as landing on short tracks or abandoning takeoff and performing emergency braking, the brakes are subjected to too much load and overheat. The reason for placing a large number of wheels on large aircraft is to distribute these loads to more wheels to prevent the brakes from overheating as much as possible.
Anti-skid system is also used in aircraft to further increase braking efficiency. We can roughly compare it to the ABS system, which prevents the wheels from locking in cars. The Anti-skid system looks at the rotation speed of the wheels after landing. If one wheel rotates more slowly than the others, it reduces the braking applied to that wheel. Anti-skid increases braking efficiency in rainy, snowy, icy weather conditions.
So how do pilots brake ;
Putting the brakes on airplanes is a little different than cars. Aircraft also need to press the pedals for the brake, but there are 2 pedals. The right pedal brakes the wheels on the right landing gear, and the left pedal brakes the ones on the left. Also, for braking, you need to press the top of the pedal, not the middle. This system, which allows us to brake the right and left wheels differently, is called “differential braking”.
Thrust reversal, as the name implies, reverses the direction of the thrust provided by the engines.
High-pressure air coming out behind the engines begins to be sprayed as far as possible in the direction of the plane.
In this way, both aircraft can stop for a much shorter period of time, and the load on the brake mechanism located on the landing gear is reduced.